Note

This documents the development version of NetworkX. Documentation for the current release can be found here.

networkx.algorithms.components.biconnected_component_edges

biconnected_component_edges(G)[source]

Returns a generator of lists of edges, one list for each biconnected component of the input graph.

Biconnected components are maximal subgraphs such that the removal of a node (and all edges incident on that node) will not disconnect the subgraph. Note that nodes may be part of more than one biconnected component. Those nodes are articulation points, or cut vertices. However, each edge belongs to one, and only one, biconnected component.

Notice that by convention a dyad is considered a biconnected component.

Parameters

G (NetworkX Graph) – An undirected graph.

Returns

edges – Generator of lists of edges, one list for each bicomponent.

Return type

generator of lists

Raises

NetworkXNotImplemented – If the input graph is not undirected.

Examples

>>> G = nx.barbell_graph(4, 2)
>>> print(nx.is_biconnected(G))
False
>>> bicomponents_edges = list(nx.biconnected_component_edges(G))
>>> len(bicomponents_edges)
5
>>> G.add_edge(2, 8)
>>> print(nx.is_biconnected(G))
True
>>> bicomponents_edges = list(nx.biconnected_component_edges(G))
>>> len(bicomponents_edges)
1

Notes

The algorithm to find articulation points and biconnected components is implemented using a non-recursive depth-first-search (DFS) that keeps track of the highest level that back edges reach in the DFS tree. A node n is an articulation point if, and only if, there exists a subtree rooted at n such that there is no back edge from any successor of n that links to a predecessor of n in the DFS tree. By keeping track of all the edges traversed by the DFS we can obtain the biconnected components because all edges of a bicomponent will be traversed consecutively between articulation points.

References

1

Hopcroft, J.; Tarjan, R. (1973). “Efficient algorithms for graph manipulation”. Communications of the ACM 16: 372–378. doi:10.1145/362248.362272