networkx.algorithms.simple_paths.all_simple_paths

all_simple_paths(G, source, target, cutoff=None)[source]

Generate all simple paths in the graph G from source to target.

A simple path is a path with no repeated nodes.

Parameters:
  • G (NetworkX graph)
  • source (node) – Starting node for path
  • target (nodes) – Single node or iterable of nodes at which to end path
  • cutoff (integer, optional) – Depth to stop the search. Only paths of length <= cutoff are returned.
Returns:

path_generator – A generator that produces lists of simple paths. If there are no paths between the source and target within the given cutoff the generator produces no output.

Return type:

generator

Examples

This iterator generates lists of nodes:

>>> G = nx.complete_graph(4)
>>> for path in nx.all_simple_paths(G, source=0, target=3):
...     print(path)
...
[0, 1, 2, 3]
[0, 1, 3]
[0, 2, 1, 3]
[0, 2, 3]
[0, 3]

You can generate only those paths that are shorter than a certain length by using the cutoff keyword argument:

>>> paths = nx.all_simple_paths(G, source=0, target=3, cutoff=2)
>>> print(list(paths))
[[0, 1, 3], [0, 2, 3], [0, 3]]

To get each path as the corresponding list of edges, you can use the networkx.utils.pairwise() helper function:

>>> paths = nx.all_simple_paths(G, source=0, target=3)
>>> for path in map(nx.utils.pairwise, paths):
...     print(list(path))
[(0, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3)]
[(0, 1), (1, 3)]
[(0, 2), (2, 1), (1, 3)]
[(0, 2), (2, 3)]
[(0, 3)]

Pass an iterable of nodes as target to generate all paths ending in any of several nodes:

>>> G = nx.complete_graph(4)
>>> for path in nx.all_simple_paths(G, source=0, target=[3, 2]):
...     print(path)
...
[0, 1, 2]
[0, 1, 2, 3]
[0, 1, 3]
[0, 1, 3, 2]
[0, 2]
[0, 2, 1, 3]
[0, 2, 3]
[0, 3]
[0, 3, 1, 2]
[0, 3, 2]

Iterate over each path from the root nodes to the leaf nodes in a directed acyclic graph using a functional programming approach:

>>> from itertools import chain
>>> from itertools import product
>>> from itertools import starmap
>>> from functools import partial
>>>
>>> chaini = chain.from_iterable
>>>
>>> G = nx.DiGraph([(0, 1), (1, 2), (0, 3), (3, 2)])
>>> roots = (v for v, d in G.in_degree() if d == 0)
>>> leaves = (v for v, d in G.out_degree() if d == 0)
>>> all_paths = partial(nx.all_simple_paths, G)
>>> list(chaini(starmap(all_paths, product(roots, leaves))))
[[0, 1, 2], [0, 3, 2]]

The same list computed using an iterative approach:

>>> G = nx.DiGraph([(0, 1), (1, 2), (0, 3), (3, 2)])
>>> roots = (v for v, d in G.in_degree() if d == 0)
>>> leaves = (v for v, d in G.out_degree() if d == 0)
>>> all_paths = []
>>> for root in roots:
...     for leaf in leaves:
...         paths = nx.all_simple_paths(G, root, leaf)
...         all_paths.extend(paths)
>>> all_paths
[[0, 1, 2], [0, 3, 2]]

Iterate over each path from the root nodes to the leaf nodes in a directed acyclic graph passing all leaves together to avoid unnecessary compute:

>>> G = nx.DiGraph([(0, 1), (2, 1), (1, 3), (1, 4)])
>>> roots = (v for v, d in G.in_degree() if d == 0)
>>> leaves = [v for v, d in G.out_degree() if d == 0]
>>> all_paths = []
>>> for root in roots:
...     paths = nx.all_simple_paths(G, root, leaves)
...     all_paths.extend(paths)
>>> all_paths
[[0, 1, 3], [0, 1, 4], [2, 1, 3], [2, 1, 4]]

Notes

This algorithm uses a modified depth-first search to generate the paths [1]. A single path can be found in \(O(V+E)\) time but the number of simple paths in a graph can be very large, e.g. \(O(n!)\) in the complete graph of order \(n\).

References

[1]R. Sedgewick, “Algorithms in C, Part 5: Graph Algorithms”, Addison Wesley Professional, 3rd ed., 2001.

See also

all_shortest_paths(), shortest_path()